Tag Archives: indigenous

Zapatista teacher dead, 15 seriously wounded in deadly Chiapas ambush

9 May

from www.schoolsforchiapas.org:

Jose Luis Solís López, a teacher in the Zapatista’s “Little School” (La Escuelita) was murdered, and at least 15 Zapatistas seriously injured, in an ambush by members of an anti-Zapatista organization known as CIOAC-H on Friday, May 2, 2014.  The same attackers damaged or destroyed both the autonomous Mayan school and the local health clinic at the Zapatista caracol of La Realidad.

Read more, and find out what you can do here.

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Police arrest SPS “community partners” at Horace Mann during ongoing negotiations

20 Nov
Police making arrests at Horace Mann today; photo by Alex Garland

Police making arrests at Horace Mann today; photo by Alex Garland

Today the Seattle p0lice arrested four members of the Africatown / Central District community in the Horace Mann school building; they also took steps to prevent community members from retaking control of the building. One of the arrestees told me the police arrested them at gunpoint. 

While the mainstream media is presenting these men as “occupiers“, as a violent threat, or as some splinter group, they are, in fact, part of the  broad-based More4Mann movement: a coalition of predominantly Black parents, teachers, students, and community activists who want the Horace Mann building to be a public resource for the Africatown/ Central District neighborhood and for students across the district.  They want to use the building to create a school that can support Black students who are facing disproportionate suspensions and lack of culturally relevant education in the Seattle Public Schools.

As I wrote here, I was worried that the media and school district officials would try to separate the educators in this coalition from the people remaining in the building, splintering the broad-based nature of the movement.  But those divide and conquer tactics didn’t work; the entire coalition held a rally on Nov 8th to support those who remained inside the building after district and police threats had made it unsafe for the educators to continue holding classes there. The coalition put out a unified press release, which you can find at the end of this post.  The media was there interviewing people at the solidarity rally, but they didn’t actually publish what they saw, probably because it looked like this:

kids support More4Mann

And this clearly doesn’t fit with the narrative they’re trying to push.

People inside the building reciprocated this solidarity with their own public statements, like this one:

LET THIS BE KNOWN: I am a More for Mann Coalition Task Force member, seated to discuss the future use of the Horace Mann building with the school district, as are two of my co-workers, Gabriel Prawl and Purnell Mitchell. My two co-workers have asked me to post the following on behalf of all three of us: WE HAVE NOT AGREED TO MOVE, AND WE ARE ANGRY THAT MANY OF OUR TEACHERS HAVE BEEN PUSHED OUT INTO THE COLD BY DISTRICT THREATS AND INTIMIDATION! We don’t think it’s right that they were forced to shut down their classes or face the threat “tresspass” charges from the district. It isn’t right that the school district refused to sign the lease on the interim space it offered them. It isn´t right that the school district hasn´t cleaned the mold, filth and birds nests out of that space. It isn´t right for them top make our teachers teach in the rainy streets. It isn´t even right that the school district attorney Ron English and the board members who listen to him are bullying Superintendent Banda into threatening to throw the cops at our community, and are punishing Banda for even convening our task force at all.

So the mainstream media is either too lazy to investigate or too corrupt to tell the truth. It is crystal clear to anyone paying close attention, that those inside the building and those outside in the community are on the same team.  This means that Seattle Public Schools officials will not be able to make all of this go away by arresting a few people inside  – today’s raid will probably  galvanize the broader coalition to keep fighting against racism in the schools in general, and for community control of the Mann building in particular.

This afternoon, supporters of the movement rallied outside the East Precinct where the people arrested were released. 

 Upon release, they called for everyone to mobilize tomorrow at the school board meeting at the John Stanford Center, 2445 3rd Ave S., Seattle, WA, 98134.  

This could get really interesting, because supporters of the Indian Heritage School and AS1/Pinehurst are already planning on rallying at 3:30 before the board meeting, to prevent the closure of their programs.  On Facebook, leaders of the More4Mann Movement and leaders of the indigenous Idle No More movement have been exchanging statements of solidarity, supporting each others’ causes.   Thinking they just crushed a marginal opposition, school district officials may have just helped consolidate a multi-racial movement against them. 

The media is, as usual, missing all of this context.  By calling the men arrested “occupiers”, they fail to see that trying to use a public building for the purposes of publicly educating youth in your own neighborhood is not an act of occupation.  That’s like saying you are occupying a neighborhood park by allowing your kids to swing on the swingset.  But I guess this is how the pro-gentrification Seattle establishment views the remnant of the Black community in the Central Area – as squatters in their own ‘hood.

And yet, this is the same Seattle whose politicians like to make a public show of engaging in “dialogue” with communities of color.  In fact, the people arrested are part of  the  same exact More4Mann coalition that Seattle Public Schools Superintendent Jose Banda has been calling “community partners”.  It is the exact same coalition that Banda and his staff are currently negotiating with to lease space in another district building while the district renovates the Mann building.

Contrary to the Seattle Times’s sloppy reporting, the district has not signed this lease yet, for the reasons outlined here. At least they hadn’t by Nov 10th, the date of the last post on More4Mann’s blog. Neither the district nor the movement has announced any finalization of the lease, so my assumption is the Times is going off of outdated promises that Supt. Banda had made publicly but the district never followed through on.  The deal was that the Africatown educators would move out of Horace Mann as long as the programs they were doing in the building continue elsewhere.  But no satisfactory place for these programs was every guaranteed in writing.  Also, the Africatown workers’  demands that Black folks have equal access to the school construction jobs were also not met. These are the reasons why people were still in the building today. 

So by asking the police to raid them, SPS is responsible for a raid on the very same coalition that has been running programming for Black youth in the Mann building for months, programming that Banda and other SPS officials recognized for its cultural relevance and  its alignment with the  district’s strategic goal of overcoming what they call the “achievement gap” between Black students and white students.

In fact, at least one of the people arrested is actually part of the very task force that Supt. Banda set up to negotiate with the Mor4Mann coalition and to work toward this goal. This means that Seattle Public school staff worked with the Seattle Police to arrest at gunpoint someone who they claim to be negotiating with, during ongoing negotiations over a new lease and new partnership. I guess that’s what “dialogue” looks like to them. 

It seems to me like one of two things is going on here.  Either 1)  the district leadership’s behavior is dangerously erratic and it’s policies around racial equality are completely incoherent or  2) the district is sending a clear message to all of its “partners” that negotiating  with politicians might involve them calling a group of people to kidnap you at gunpoint in your own neighborhood during the middle of the negotiation process. What a way to solidify a partnership! 

But all of this is getting obscured by the sensationalist media narratives.   Kiro TV claims that one of the people inside the Mann building called them and suggested they were prepared to snipe cops from the rooftop.  But nowhere does Kiro prove that this call actually represents anyone in the More4Mann coalition, or that it even came from within the building.  According to Seattle Weekly, Omari Tahir Garrett, one of the people arrested today, “claims the call was a prank from someone trying to make them look bad, and vowed to press on.” 

All of us should press on, despite all this negative media and and the police raid.  The issues that MOre4Mann has highlighted are still unresolved.  The community’s refusal to relinquish control of the Mann building has pushed the district  leadership to talk about these issues, but I don’t think we should take their words seriously since they also just coordinated the arrest of someone on their own task force.  

Let’s learn from Africatown, and start taking matters into our own hands.  Let’s organize in all of of our schools and neighborhoods, against racist discipline policies and in favor of culturally responsive education.  We could take direct action, such as campaigns to reinstate students who are unfairly suspended, or efforts to replace aversive discipline policies like isolation rooms.  And, most importantly, we should support Africatown and the Indian Heritage program tomorrow at 3:30 at the school board meeting. 

 

More4Mann press release (Nov 8th 2013, coinciding with a rally outside the Mann building): 

Imminent Eviction of Black Community Education Center by SPD

The Seattle Police Department has issued a notice to the Africatown Center for Education & Innovation to remove this needed community resource from its location at the Horace Mann School as soon as 6pm tonight, November 8, 2013. The Seattle School Board has refused to negotiate in good faith with Seattle’s Black community to preserve necessary programming at Horace Mann, Africatown’s only location, which benefits cross-cultural communities of color in Seattle’s Central District.

The Seattle School District has, in spite of comment from Seattle’s Black community, chosen to return the NOVA Alternative School to Horace Mann. Overwhelming community support in the Central District and among the Black community for continuing ACEI’s mission has been ignored by the Seattle School District’s push to relocate NOVA from its current spacious and sufficient location central to its student body on 20th Ave E.

ACEI has put down roots in reclaiming Horace Mann School *for* the Black community and has brought in cross-cultural programs that benefit many Seattle children, from bilingual Spanish/English education for grade schoolers through the Seattle Amistad School’s summer program at ACEI to fostering shared community responsibility through the Africatown Center Children’s Collective where we bring the proverbial village together to promote an Afrocentric curriculum for young minds.

It is imperative for Seattle’s Black community that we retain this resource and that the School Board speak to us in good faith about discussing future possibilities for Africatown at Horace Mann. We can work with the Seattle School District to create a better, Afrocentric focus for Horace Mann School, a school in the very heart of the Central District and we are more than willing to do so. However, the Seattle School District has given ACEI nothing but bad faith and now impending eviction.

For more information on the programs offered by Africatown Center for Education & Innovation, please see http://www.africatownseattle.org/africatown-center/.

Protest Weds to save the Indian Heritage Program

18 Nov

uwgvrdUHZfyghYc-556x313-noPadThere is going to be a protest to save the Indian Heritage program, Weds at 3:30 before the school board meeting.  The organizers  state “it is unconscionable that resources been completely withdrawn from Native programming and services, while SPS acknowledges the statistical facts illustrating disproportionate academic performance, disciplinary action, and highest dropout rates for Native learners.”

I agree.   I’ll be there, and I encourage everyone to come.  Between this and the fact that the district still hasn’t signed a lease with the Africatown educators (and are still threatening a police raid instead), the district is looking mighty callous in how it relates to communities of color.

This also seems to be part of the ongoing standardization of curriculum and undermining of alternative education, which we also see with the suppression of the race and social justice  curriculum at the Center School, and the closure of Pinehurst/ AS1.   I’m still learning about this, but the sense I’m getting is that supporters of  AS1/ Pinehurst are  advocating that the district create a new, combined AS1- Indian Heritage Program with culturally responsive services and Native-focused instruction, instead of closing both programs.   This also seems to be a demand that Idle No More organizers from the Native community will be raising at the rally on Weds (see the list of demands below).

At the school board meeting on Weds, Supt. Banda will be proposing the closure of Pinehurst.  But this amendment and also this one propose merging AS1 and Indian Heritage instead.

It should be another very interesting and heated board meeting.  Hope to see ya’ll there.

——-

The facebook page for the protest is here.  Here is the call to action, from WA state Idle No More:

There will be a rally for the Indian Heritage Program
Wednesday November 20, 2013 from 3:30 – 6:30 pm
John Stanford Center
2445 3rd Ave S., Seattle, WA, 98134

Seattle Public Schools HAS CLOSED the Indian Heritage!! Please come and support our Native youth! If you are available to come and give public testimony of your support on Wednesday you need to CALL IN MONDAY 11/18/13 at 8 am (206) 252-0040 to get on the agenda.

Please WEAR RED SHIRTS at the rally in a show of unity and solidarity as a collective voice opposing closure of Heritage and in support of new k-8 ‘Native Heritage ‘ ASI school and Indian Heritage at Ingraham/West Seattle school ( Fall 2014).

**************************************
After nearly 40 years of operation, the Seattle Public Schools (SPS) announced the closure of the American Indian Heritage Middle College High School, a.k.a. Indian Heritage, located at 1330 N. 90th Street, Seattle, WA.

José Banda the Superintendent of Seattle Public Schools presented a public statement last July 2012 expressing commitment to consult with the Native community on ‘next steps’ in consideration of revitalizing the Indian Heritage, the pending BEX Levy, demolition of the Indian Heritage facilities, and the preservation of the murals created by Andrew Morrison. Instead the Indian Heritage and Native students suffered continued decline in 2012-2013 being reduced to digital learning, no Native-focused instruction, no Native-infused curriculum, and a new instructor unfamiliar to Native students, parents, and community. The Native community proposals and concerns addressing these drastic changes have been ignored by SPS.

After the May rally to save the Indian Heritage program SPS had met with Native community members and said the Native students would be temporarily relocated to Lincoln High School during construction of the new school, that SPS would work with them in revitalizing Indian Heritage, that the murals would be preserved, and Indian Heritage would come back to the new school. Instead SPS claims the Indian Heritage was eliminated because there were ‘not enough kids’, but SPS never contacted the students about the plan and made no effort to recruit new students, the Native students have now been forced to assimilate into an entirely different program and relocated to Northgate Mall.

It is unconscionable that resources been completely withdrawn from Native programming and services, while SPS acknowledges the statistical facts illustrating disproportionate academic performance, disciplinary action, and highest dropout rates for Native learners. We want SPS to address why 30% of Native students are in Special Education, we want to know why SPS fails to comply with Individualized Education Program and 504 Basic Plan, and why Native students are underserved and over represented in this area of education. The trajectory for Native learners in SPS is of tremendous concern given the districts decisions to eliminate Indian Heritage and displace current programs functioning at the Indian Heritage facilities.

At this time we will again initiate and voice our opposition with Seattle Public Schools plan to eliminate Indian Heritage. We as a community will invite SPS to listen to our viable plan that includes our recommendations to revitalize the Indian Heritage program by:
• Temporarily relocate the Indian Heritage program to Lincoln High School as planned NOT to Northgate Mall until the new site has been completed in 2017.
• Revitalization of Indian Heritage program at Ingraham H.S. and West Seattle H.S. location
• As SPS is a recipient of Title VII federal funds for enrolled Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native students, we ask that they comply with regulations that include:
(1) meeting the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives;
(2) the education of Indian children and adults;
(3) the training of Indian persons as educators and counselors, and in other professions serving Indian people; and
(4) research, evaluation, data collection, and technical assistance.
Thus as Title VII Part A states, “ensuring that programs that serve Indian children are of the highest quality and provide for not only the basic elementary and secondary educational needs, but also the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of these children.” Currently there is absolutely no demonstration of this in SPS relocation program.
• We recommend that all the murals that were made by artist Andrew Morrison (Apache/Haida) be preserved and incorporated in its original form into the new school (and not be replicated as Mr. Morrison requests).
• Rename the Wilson-Pacific School ‘Robert Eaglestaff School thereby keeping a promise made to the Native community in 1996 by John Stanford and echoed by Norm Rice.
• Provide support for new a ‘Native Heritage’ AS-I school with Native focused instruction/curriculum and culturally responsive services.
• Preserve the Sacred Site of the Duwamish Licton Springs.

Also, there is a petition to investigate the elimination of the program.

Mexican teachers disrupt the metropolis; Seattle teachers accept underwhelming contract

4 Sep
Photo of Mexico City teacher protests, from Huffington Post

 Mexico City teacher protests; photo from the Huffington Post

Teachers have brought Mexico City to a halt by strategically blockading key transportation hubs throughout  the metropolis.   According to the Huffington Post,

Some 10,000 educators protesting a government reform program have in the span of a week disrupted international air travel, forced the cancellation of two major soccer matches, rerouted the planned route of the marathon and jammed up already traffic-choked freeways.

Teachers are taking this action in opposition to an education “deform” law that would base their evaluations on student test scores, and would end the union’s control of hiring.  Ironically, as  I mention below, Seattle teachers just voted tonight to accept similar conditions here.  Given the related issues we are facing, we should learn as much as we can from the Mexico City protests.

The blockade tactics the teachers are using there seem to be increasingly popular and effective, part of a global trend in protest methods.  Counterinsurgency theorist John Robb  warns the ruling class that they will face increasingly powerful “systems disruption” from global  insurrectionary forces on both the left and the right; because the contemporary capitalist system is so highly networked, when  actors target key nodes in the system, they can cause cascading ripples of destruction.  Instead of having to spread their labor action into a general strike, the Mexican teachers have used their concentrated power as a militant minority to disrupt the reproduction of daily life across the metropolis; if people can’t commute, they can’t get to work.  All the teachers have to do is go after the system’s weak points: in this case the transportation nodes that were already overwhelmed by heavy traffic before the protests.

Here, the Occupy movement groped toward similar tactics, perhaps a bit too late to overcome its internal contradictions and the effects of state repression.    The clearest example of this kind of move was when the West Coast Occupy general assemblies called for a blockade of the ports in retaliation for the state’s crushing of the occupy camps.

This raised a set of crucial questions:  if a militant minority can  disrupt the contemporary metropolis, should they?  Or, more precisely, when should they?  Should they only do it if they have the support of a majority of  working class, oppressed, and unemployed folks who will be affected by the action?  If so, would they need active or passive support?  Or is it appropriate to act on behalf of a larger class/ group/ community if one’s goals are in the interests of everyone?  It is increasingly easy to disrupt the capitalist system, but what kind of actions simultaneously build our collective capacity to destroy, replace, and supersede it with total freedom / everything for everyone?

Some traditional U.S. labor activists might argue against these tactics of minority disruption; they might say they are desperate moves by teachers outnumbered and isolated from the rest of the working class; that the teachers should try to patiently organize to win over the majority of workers,  like classic U.S labor activists did when they built the unions in the 1930s.   These activists would be forgetting how the Oaxaca uprising began – teachers blockaded and occupied the central plaza, and when they faced repression and fought back,  more and more people began to join them, expanding the blockade into barricades across the city.

In their rush to try to replicate comfortably digested U.S. labor history, these patient folks would also be forgetting a lesson that Beverley Silver documents in her brilliant book Forces of Labor: the 1930s US auto strikes that gave birth to the CIO unions here were themselves militant minority actions that would probably have seemed recklessly insurrectionary the moment before they happened. For example, the Flint sit down strike was initiated by a small number of workers who knew the production process well enough to target crucial parts of the factory; when they shut these down,  cascading disruptions  ended up shutting down the auto companies’ entire production chains, causing massive amounts of economic damage.   And this kind of focused, tactical disruption was not unique to the U.S.; Silver documents how this process of disruptive militant minority action happened over and over again in auto factories located in multiple countries with very different cultural and political situations – from Italy in the 70s to Brazil and South Korea in the 80s.  When it was crushed in one place, it reemerged when a new militant minority of workers took action in the heart of a new, growing area of capitalist development.

This illustrates another one of John Robb’s tactical concepts: the idea of the “plausible promise”.  Once the rest of the auto workers saw in practice that a militant minority could actually deliver on their promise of shutting down the company, they changed their minds about what was possible and what was impossible; the militant minority became a majority after they took action, not before.  A majority of workers gained confidence, and chose to replicate the initial action in new ways across a variety of industries.

To be clear, I’m not arguing for an anti-social insurrectionist logic here (“we’re tired of waiting for The Masses to come around and we’re tried of making demands on the state , so we’re going to take direction action to free ourselves right now, even if it means fighting the masses”).   The Flint strikers  did have demands and they did appeal to a broader sense of class belonging – it was precisely through their ability to win these demands with bold, unexpected direct action, that they were able to generalize the struggle from a minority one to a majority one.  Eventually the autoworkers became a catalyzing force throughout the working class – people said “if they can do it, so can we”.   Of course, later on, this process of making demands through direct action became co-opted into a process  of “responsible unionism”.  Under a new “liberal” labor management regime,  union representatives make demands on behalf of the workers,  refuse to break laws set by the bosses,  confine the struggle to narrow issues of wages and benefits,  marginalize workers  who fight the bosses’ ability to control our creative powers on the job, and confine the struggle within national borders (supporting U.S imperialism instead of allying with the Mexican teachers and other folks who are fighting it around the world.)

The Mexican teachers are also posing demands.  Do their actions have the same potential to generalize from a militant minority into a majority?   Or will that kind of co-opting trade union logic prevent them from generalizing the struggle?  The mainstream media is highlighting the inconveniences the blockades are causing for the rest of the Mexico City working class and the anger against the union that this is causing among some folks.    However, it appears the teachers are uniting with other forces to oppose a range of austerity and privatization measures being pushed by the government (and ultimately by the empire).  They are not simply fighting for themselves.

This is a good step, but I imagine that the teachers will have trouble generalizing the struggle unless their demands also include a transformation of education itself,  not simply a defensive battle against testing and privatization.   Auto workers work on metal, but as caring laborers, teachers work with human beings.  We can’t simply sabotage our jobs without hurting  other oppressed people.  And our demands are inherently linked with the conditions that our students and their communities are facing.  Given that, we need to take direct action to collectively transform the learning process, but this can only happen if our students and their communities also rise up against the oppressive and alienating aspects of capitalist education, with all of its control and its suppression of creativity.

From my narrow vantage point here in the belly of the beast, I have no idea whether or not this is happening in the current Mexico City actions.  But I’ve heard that this sort of thing has  been a significant part of social struggles across Mexico in general, especially in indigenous liberation struggles.   At the end of the film Granito de Arena, some of the Mexican teacher militants discuss how their radical labor tactics are empty unless they also transform the learning process itself.  They talk about the need to collaborate as equals with the indigenous communities where they are teaching, to become part of the community sharing and creating knowledge, instead of imposing state-certified learning standards in a colonial fashion upon the community.

Meanwhile in Seattle… 

Teachers picket in Seattle against testing-based evaluations

Teachers picket in Seattle against testing-based evaluations

Over the past few weeks, Seattle teachers have held a series of pickets regarding the current contract negotiations between the Seattle Education Association and the Seattle Public Schools.  The union threatened to strike if necessary, and tonight many students have been wondering whether school is going to start tomorrow.   The union successfully defeated the district’s proposal to expand class sizes, and pushed the district to set caseload limits for school psychologists and occupational and physical therapists.

However, the district successfully pushed to continue using student test scores to evaluate teachers.  The union had been asking for a moratorium on this, pending changes at the state level in how teachers will be evaluated, including new state tests associated with the adoption of the Common Core standards.  The district didn’t budge, and tonight 1,500 of the union’s 3,000 members met to vote on the district’s final offer.   A majority of those 1,500 voted to accept the district’s offer, so there will be no strike.  Tomorrow, while Mexican teachers continue to fight, we’ll be going to work.

This is a somewhat underwhelming sequel to the vibrant boycott of the MAP test last spring.

What will it take to get to the point where we can fight back like the Mexican teachers are doing?  How can we start building, shoulder to shoulder with our students and their families and communities , starting right now,  so that if we do need to disrupt the metropolis here, we can do it together, creating new forms of learning and growth in the process?

 

 

 

 

“I set myself an assignment, to get every race united”

28 Jun
A young intellectual's rejection of institutional education

A page from a young intellectual’s notebook

This poem was written by one of my students, and I am sharing it with his permission.  He self-identifies as indigenous, from Oaxaca and South Park.    In this poem, he talks about how school reproduces white supremacy, and concludes that in order to stop this he needs to set himself an assignment, to unite the  races against the system, replacing the rich white people’s state apparatus with multi-racial “self-government”.

In my experience, this poem is a solid representation of a growing anti-racist and anti-capitalist philosophical tendency among the youth I work with, most of whom have dropped out or fallen behind in school.  I have met dozens of students like this author, who are tired of the Eurocentric curriculum, high stakes testing, and discipline of the schools.  They say these exist only to prepare them for non-existent jobs or mountains of college debt they will never pay back.

They say they are tired of the beef  (conflicts) that high school concentrates, where the classrooms become like  prison yards dividing and conquering Blacks vs. Mexicans vs. Natives, with the help of police who instigate this violence in the name of  controlling gangs.   They are also struggling to create an  intellectual milieu of  thinkers who are willing to learn from each other, through hip hop, independent  social media,  some critical engagement with anarchist and communist revolutionary literature, and  social movements like Occupy, anti-police brutality protests, etc.   At times, this intellectual tendency  is expressed as criticism of current events (such as the Seattle media’s portrayal of May Day protestors mentioned in this poem), and other times it is expressed as conspiracy theories about the Illuminati (which can go in either left wing or right wing directions).

While some teachers and other adults may dismiss this author because of his stridency, his “slang”, or his spelling errors, they would be missing out on a chance to understand the frustrations, the ideas, and the desires of one of the people who will be most likely to create  movements that will shake this society to it’s core.

I also want to mention that some of the students who reject and criticize school also defend their schools from budget cuts and other neoliberal attacks; students have walked out on this basis across the country.   Some have emphasized they want some stability in their lives, and are looking for this in classrooms which they don’t want disrupted by school closings and repeated teacher layoffs and transfers.  Isn’t it possible to desire this stability while still rebelling against the control and conformity that come along with it under the current system?

In any case, if these youth can manage to create ways to learn and “do their research” together as this poem says, they just may be able to develop the theories and strategies necessary to start a movement.  And that movement might flow back into the classrooms, shaking up the education system in some necessary ways.  It just might infuse classroom discussions with a defribulator’s voltage  of critical, social creativity and self-government – enough to break through  the schools’ control systems, creating more freedom for all of us.